Wednesday, May 28, 2014

The Clinton Graves at Woodlawn Cemetery in New Windsor, New York

My research on Dr. Charles Clinton led me to the interesting story of his burial at the Clinton Family Cemetery followed eighty-five years later by his reinterment at Woodlawn Cemetery in New Windsor.

I had visited this family plot several times and had no idea he was here.  For one thing, most of the stones are totally illegible.  So here is everything I know about the plot. which is not a lot.  It is also known as the "Gray Plot" if you are talking to the cemetery crew.

The map below shows the location of the plot within the Woodlawn Cemetery at New Windsor, New York.  The exact coordinates of the plot are 41.476225, -74.024739.

The northeast end of the Woodlawn Cemetery in New Windsor (corner of Union and Quassaic Aves).  The Clinton graves are located in the red circle.
 The layout is shown below:

Layout of the Clinton graves at Woodlawn Cemetery.  Copied from the map at the cemetery office.  Notice that some of the dates are not correct.  There is also more data on the slabs when it is legible.
View of Clinton grave arrangement from the northeast.  James Clinton elevated slab is on the right.
View from southwest showing "Bolton" markers flush with ground.

West face of obelisk.
South face of obelisk.
North face of obelisk.  Note Dewitt and George are not buried here!
The east face describes Charles Clinton and his wife Elizabeth's history.  Sorry...picture will be inserted later.

Illegible slab of Catharine and Charles Clinton.  The only vertical marker in the plot is standing in front.

Vertical slab of Catharine Clinton McClaghry.
Slab of Mary Gray and Alexander Gray.  Slightly legible.
Slab of James Clinton.  Slightly legible.
Illegible slab of Charles and Elizabeth sitting in front of their children, Charles and Catharine.
Graham Clinton marker (flush with ground) in front of Mary and Alexander Gray elevated slab.
Anna Ross
Thomas Bolton
Letitia Bolton
Francis Bolton
Because the dates of death are all prior to the existence of this cemetery, it is assumed that all seventeen of them were all removed from the Clinton Family Cemetery in Little Britain to this place.

The Posthumous Adventures of Dr. Charles Clinton of Montgomery, New York

I became interested in Dr. Clinton after viewing the 1790 census for Montgomery, New York.  He lived just down the street from Joel Campbell, the namesake of this blog.

I became even more excited when I read Ruttenber's  list of the holdings of the George Washington Headquarters Museum.  One of the objects was Dr. Clinton's Daybook from 1765 to 1785.

Surely he had doctored my relatives??  Maybe he had intervened enough that even I owed my life to him?  Ahh...the ponderings of an imaginative genealogist.

I have already written about his Daybook, about his treatment of my 5th great grand uncle's wife, Phoebe, about his treatment of my 1st Cousin 6x removed (Daniel's son, Joseph), and his treatment of a likely relative, James Campbell, the millwright.

The year after the 1790 census was taken, Dr. Clinton died of consumption.  The diagnosis of consumption was associated with a pulmonary infection.  Its symptoms were chronic cough, blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.  In many cases, this infection was the bacterium we call "tuberculosis" today.

Shortly after his death on April 3, 1791 he was laid to rest next to his father, Charles, and sister, Catharine, in the Clinton Family Cemetery.  This cemetery sat on a hill overlooking the Clinton Family homestead.  The elder Clinton had created this plot for his family and neighbors.  In his will he requested,
"It is my will that I be buried in the graveyard on my own farm, beside my daughter. Catharine; and it is my will the said graveyard be made four rods square, and an open road to it at all times, when it shall be necessary; and I nominate and appoint my saidthree sons, Charles, James and George, to see the same executed accordingly; and I order that my said Executors procure a suitable stone to lay over my grave, whereon I would have the time of my death, my age and coat of arms cut. I hope they will indulge me in this last piece of vanity."
Surely his devoted sons fulfilled that request.  James built a gate to the twenty two yard square cemetery.  He offered to build a wall around it, but the subscribers were few so he just erected a wall around the Clinton graves.

In 1876, the year of the United States centennial, a new cemetery was being created in New Windsor, called Woodlawn.  According to Ruttenber:
"....the removal of the [Clinton] relatives from the vicinity left the place [Clinton Family Cemetery] to the care of strangers. The wall and gate becoming broken, and rank weeds and bushes springing up, induced John A. Gray, grandson of Mrs. Mary Gray Clinton, to remove the remains and monuments to Woodlawn Cemetery in 1875." [The best sources say 1876, but others say 1879 as well as this date of 1875.]
The Clintons were reinterred in a section of the Woodlawn cemetery close to the main gate.  They had a prominent place in the center of that section known as the "Gray Plot."

For eighty six years Charles had lain buried atop a small hill in Little Britain. Now he made the journey of about seven miles to another hill that overlooked the Hudson River.  Did his gravestone travel with him?  It appears not, as the stone covering his grave at Woodlawn appears to be custom for that spot.  Were his remains actually found?  His brother James had died sixty four years prior to reinterment (twenty two years less than Charles).  According the Headley's History of Orange County, only James' coffin plate was found. 

Charles was buried next to (or with?) his sister, Catherine.  They share the same illegible horizontal stone.   Catherine, the first wife of Colonel James McClaughry, is fortunate to have a second stone which is very legible.

Horizontal stone shared by Charles Clinton and his sister, Catharine in Woodlawn cemetery, New Windsor.  Catherine's vertical stone sits in front.

Stone of Catharine Clinton McClaghry at Woodlawn Cemetery, New Windsor, NY.  Perhaps this is the one that stood in the Clinton Family Cemetery?  If so, it dates to 1762.And 

And what remains of the original Clinton Family Cemetery?  Well, this will probably be a blog-post for another day.  Let's just say that the wishes of Charles, the patriarch, only lasted a few generations.  There exists no "open road" to it.  It is unmarked, unmaintained, and virtually lost.  The photo below is probably the remains of the lane to the cemetery.  It is blocked at both ends.  If you wish to explore, it can be accessed from the cul-de-sac at the end of Oak Hill Rd and is approximately at these coordinates:  41.455398, -74.150396 

Possible remains of lane to Clinton Family Cemetery?

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Samuel Campbell Farm of 1773 - Planning my next visit

In Samuel Campbell's will of 1773 he leaves his home and main farm to his son, Samuel.

Twenty years later, in 1793, Samuel the younger is dead.  His brothers and sister sold the farm and home to Thomas Barkley.  The description of the farm in the deed of 1793 is clear enough that its location along Route 208 in Montgomery, NY could be approximated by the region shown in the red oval below.

1862 map of Montgomery, NY.  This historical wall map hangs in the Montgomery Town Hall.
The original farm straddled the road.  About 50% of the 100 acre farm was on each side.  By 1862 it appears that the farm has been broken up between Bowne and Eager.

The location of the farm is further confirmed by David A. Morrison in The History of Orange County, New York (1908) edited by Russel Headley.  He states: "Other early settlers were James Barkley, on the James W. Bowne farm.." 

Indeed the Barkleys did sell the farm to the Bowne family.  An 1826 deed exists for the sale of a farm in this location from Thomas Barkley, the son of Thomas who bought the farm from the Campbells, to a Susan Bowne.  [Deed in Liber FF p.397 in the Orange County, NY Clerks office: "New York, Land Records, 1630-1975," images, FamilySearch (,358680101 : accessed 12 May 2014), Orange > Deeds 1827 vol EE-FF > image 470 of 528; citing County Clerk. County Courthouse.]

The survey of the land sold by Thomas Barkley Jr to the Bownes is similar in shape to the Bowne farm shown in the 1862 map.  The blue lines of this survey are laid over 1862 map below.  On the same map are the survey lines from the Campbell to Barkley deed laid over in green.

1862 Map with surveys from Deeds overlaid. 
A closer view of the survey lines is below.

Detail of Survey Line of Deeds
A search was made for a purchase by Peter Eager or a sale by a Barkley that would correspond to the property on the east side of Route 208, but none was found.

One characteristic of the Campbell property is the notch that sits at the north end of the property adjacent to "the road to Goodwill" church (208).  The notch is not only visible in the Peter Eager plat, but is even visible today from a satellite view in the form of trees and field lines.   Other boundaries from the original farm can be seen in the remains of stone fences (they appear as tree lines) and lanes.  See below.  You can also play around with this map here

Satellite view of boundaries of 1773 Samuel Campbell Farm. 

Only one home is within this area on the 1862 map.  This is not necessarily where Samuel had his home, but the odds are good.   The home, on what became the Peter Eager property, was located at about the same place as the home shown in the satellite image.  It is on the lane just above the words "Coleman Rd."  [Remember that just to the east down Coleman Rd was the first farm of Samuel.  In his will he gave that farm to his son Daniel.  Eventually it was farmed by his sons Levi and Nathan.  Its exact location is not yet known.] 

The home that Thomas Barkley lived in was at the end of Rosswyn Lane.  Because the house appears to be outside the Campbell property lines, it is less likely that Samuel lived in that area.

There are still more unanswered questions about this farm.  My next step is to approach the current owner of the home on Coleman Road.  Most likely they will know nothing of the history, but it will be an adventure.

Below are some additional pictures of this area from 2010.  All of these pictures were taken from an area close to the pink "camera icon" that is shown in the satellite image above.   Even back then I suspected this area as the site of the farm, but did not have the current evidence.

Looking Northwest towards the farmhouse on the old Campbell property.  Coleman Road is visible.  Catskill Mountains in the background.
Looking North and a bit East.  The farm path I walked up.  Coleman Rd is at base of road.
Remains of old stone wall.  Property boundary.

A view west along the stone wall on left.  This is on a slight hill that slopes down to Route 208 (road to Goodwill).   The Campbell farm stretched for one half mile down this hill and across 208 into a low lying swampy area.  In the distance is the Wallkill River valley with the Catskills in the distance

Monday, May 12, 2014

Dr. Charles Clinton and his Patient, James Campbell's wife

Dr. Clinton and his Daybook were described in a previous post.

He lived very close to many of the Hanover Campbells.  As discussed in a previous post, he treated the son of Daniel Campbell in August of 1778 and the wife of Nathaniel Campbell in 1781.  It is believed that both Daniel and Nathaniel and their families had been living on their brother, Samuel's land.  This farm was just three miles up the road from Dr. Clinton.

In 1768, Dr. Clinton wrote the following on page forty-four of his daybook:
"1768 Augt 2  Mr. James Campbell's wife
                      Cathart                       0  1  6
                      Cerat. Epulot.             0  0  6"
Who was this James Campbell and are we related?

In 1768 Dr. Clinton's patients lived in an area that was part of the Precinct of Wallkill, the center of which was a four corners area close to where the Wallkill Meeting-House stood, now known as the Goodwill Church. It was not until 1772 that this eastern section of Wallkill was separated and became the Precinct of Hanover.  It would be renamed "Montgomery" in 1782.  Go here to read a more detailed explanation of the names by which this area has been called.

Dr Clinton's patients probably also shopped at the nearby store of Cadwallader Colden, Jr.

1798 map showing some of the roads that were likely present in 1768 when James Campbell's wife was treated by Dr. Clinton.  See location of Colden's home on right side of map.  See it on a google map.

Colden's home, and presumably the store also, were located a few miles from the Goodwill Church along the main east-west road that led to Newburgh.

Luckily for us the daybook of Colden's store from 1767 and 1768 still exists.  Sure enough a James Campbell had done some shopping there.  In fact, there appear to be at least two different James Campbells.   The daybook contains nine entries for a James Campbell, six of them do not state a profession, but two are for a shoemaker, and one is for a millwright.  In addition there are two other entries for a "Campble millright" which I assume to be James.  (see transcriptions at the end of this article.)

There is no hard evidence that relates Joel to these James Campbells.  I suppose it is circumstantial proof of relationship that they lived in the same small community, shopped at the same store, had the same family doctor, and had the same last name.

On the other hand, these Campbells had trades unlike Joel and his brothers (although Rueben would become a blacksmith and perhaps there are others I am not aware of.)  And these James Campbells were gone by the 1779 tax assessment, unlike Samuel Campbell's sons (Nathaniel, Daniel, Jonathan, Reuben, Nathan, Levi, Samuel Jr) who all appear.  [You probably see the hole in that argument as Samuel's son, Joel, does NOT appear in the 1779 tax assessment of Hanover even though he is still around?  That is still a mystery.]

Two other "unidentified" Campbell's appear in the Colden Store; Duncan and Alexander.  Perhaps the James Campbell relationships to us are connected with theirs?  Alexander we know was a Tory and was banished in 1776 (this story will soon be a post on this blog)  ...that does not mean he was not related to us.  Many families were divided in their support of the War for Independence.

The "Duncan" Campbell connection has never been understood.  He does not appear in future records of this community.

On the same day, July 2, 1768,  on which James Campbell purchased a half gallon of rum at the Colden store, Samuel Campbell sent his daughter (presumably this is Samuel Campbell Sr sending his daughter Mary Norris) to the store where she picked up a gallon of rum and a gallon of molasses.  Is it possible that she walked from the area of the family farms with her relative, James, to the store?  Maybe they talked about how much they missed New Jersey which they had left only a few years ago?  My research indicates that Mary might have left her husband there.  (see write-up on 1793 deed at the site for Joel Campbell)  Maybe James had better opportunities in New Jersey as a millwright?

To add one more strange wrinkle to the story, in 1780 a James Campbell appears on the tax records of Newark, New Jersey.  A map from this period shows a home for Ja.s Campbell at a mill site close to the old Campbell farms at Newark Mountain.  There is no evidence that this is the same James Campbell - millwright that lived for a time in Wallkill, NY, but the colocation of a James Campbell with areas where our Campbells lived deserves future attention.

1780 Millidge Map of Newark showing a Ja.s Campbell at the mill site at what is now South Mountain, NJ.

In summary, there is probably a 50/50 chance we are related to at least one of these James Campbells, if not both.

On August 2, 1768 Dr. Clinton provided a laxative (cathartic) for James Campbell's wife.  He also left her an ointment (cerotum epulotic) to apply to her sores.  He left a bill for 1 shilling and 12 pence.

If the patient was the wife of "James Campbell the millwright" the treatment must have been successful, for on September 2, 1768 he purchased seven yards of linen and three spools of thread at the Colden store.


Transcriptions for James Campbells' and millwrights' purchases at the Colden store, 1767-8.

November 15, 1767 Monday
    James Campble {him}
        2 blankets                1    8    0
        1 qt Rum                 0    1    0
        1 # sugar                 0    0    8
        Buy copper sauce pan + ?
                        Honebutous Bakeruse            0    17    0
     [TOTAL]                    0    12    8
             [a trade?]

Jan 18, 1768
    Jeames Cammell   Shuemaker
        [long list w/ credit of     ........        1    0    0
                          .... for 3 pair of shoes.  Immediately precedes Jonathan entry of Jan 19]
Feb 11, 1768
    Jeames Cammell [did not transcribe more]

Feb 26, 1768
    James Campble     [Ironpot, sugar, molasses]

April 26
    James Campble [molasses, rum, tea]

July 2, 1768
    Samuel Campble {his daughter}
        1 gal Molasses                0    3    0
        1 Qt Rum                        0    3    6
        [Total]                             0    6    6

    James Campbell {him}
        1/2 gal rum                0    1    9

July 27, 1768
    James Camble  (shoemaker)  [did not record details]

Aug 15, 1768
    Campble millright
        6 gind bits {??]
        ¼ # pipe [??]
        ¼ # shott [??]

Sep 2, 1768
    Jeames Cammell mill rite
        7 yd check Linning [Linen?]        1    6    3
        3 lhacus [??] thred                        0    0    6
        knife 10 newells [??]                    0    1    1

Sep 13, 1768
    James Campble
        [trades bushel of potatoes for powder and shot]

Oct 12, 1768
    Campble millright
        3 y Ozenbrigo @ 19 [??]
        John Hurley by order of Signey Conger

Are Wallkill, Hanover, and Montgomery the same place in New York?

Are Wallkill, Hanover, and Montgomery the same place?  The short answer to that question is "yes", but it is more complicated.

If you are new to the genealogy of Campbell's in New York you may be confused by the fact that some family members say a certain person was born in the Town of Montgomery, Orange Country, NY while other say Hanover Precinct, Ulster County, NY.  Here is the full history of this area.  I refer back to it often myself as it is relatively complicated.

The name of Wallkill has been applied to many places and geographically features in New York.  Its usage is often confusing.  “Kill” means river in Dutch so it makes sense that the original use was in reference to the Wallkill river which flows northeast from New Jersey until it dumps into the Rondout River near Kingston (Esopus).  In the early 1700s the term, Wallkill, was used to refer to the entire river valley area.  In 1762 the precincts of Newburgh and New Windsor were formed along the Hudson River and the area west of them was known as the Precinct of Wallkill.  From the map below, there was also a early settlement called Wallkill just west of Coldenham (NOT the hamlet of Wallkill of today which sits about 6 miles further down the river.) The center of this settlement was the current intersection of Routes 17K and 208, very close to the present Goodwill church.  This church was originally known as the Wallkill church and is referred to often as “the Wallkill Meeting House.”

In June 1767, George Monell advertised the sale of property at this location in the New York Mercury Newspaper. He described the 200 acre farm as “situated near Wallkill Meeting-House, in Ulster County, bounded on the one side by a publick Road leading from Goshen to Esopus [Kingston] and Albany [208/Maybrook/207], and divided by another publick Road leading to Wallkill Bridge and the High-Dutch Settlement [17K].”   Remnants of the Monell family still lived near this location at the 1790 census.

In 1772 the Precinct of Wallkill was divided with the easterly portion being named the Precinct of Hanover.  This precinct included a village built around a bend in the Wallkill River that was the site of a mill since the early 1700s.  In 1750 the owner of the mill and bridge was one James Ward, and at one time the village took on the name of "Ward’s Bridge".  In an act of patriotism in 1782 the precinct name was changed to Montgomery as was the name of the growing village near the bridge and mill.  In 1788 the term "Precinct" was dropped and Montgomery became a "Town".  The major Village within the Town of Montgomery remained Montgomery.  Orange County was expanded to include the Town of Montgomery in 1798 (Note that the Campbell/Barkley deed of May 1, 1793 deed says "Town of Montgomery, Ulster County.").  The Town of Montgomery was in Ulster County for the census of 1790, but was in Orange County for the 1800 census.

Records showing our relatives living sequentially in Wallkill, Hanover, and Montgomery precincts during 1765-1790 could happen without them actually moving!!

Today the river is still called Wallkill.  There is a "Town of Wallkill" that lies to the west of the Town of Montgomery, both in Orange County.  To add to the confusion there is a hamlet called Wallkill that sits on the Wallkill River in the Town of Shawangunk, Ulster County.  This hamlet should not be confused with the location of the Campbells in 1767.

1779 Sauthier Map.  Like most maps of its day, this one was constructed from many others.  It is famous for its detail (this is just a portion of the map which covers all of New York).  The red lines are the borders of Ulster County.

The Sauthier map is dated 1779, but appears to capture some of the features of earlier times that were outdated by 1779.  It was a map of the entire state of New York constructed from many older maps of the various regions.

The Hudson River is visible on the right with the river towns of Newburgh and New Windsor shown.  The Wallkill river can be seen in the middle of the map flowing to the Northeast.  In the top left corner the Shawangunk River is seen. 

The most interesting feature of this map is that it shows a village called Wallkill at where Route 17K and 208 now intersect.  There is no village there now, but it is close to the current Goodwill church, so it was probably a  “center” for many years.  This is very close to where Joel lived in 1790.  The current Village of Montgomery is located where the river makes a sudden turn eastward, just west of Wallkill on this map.

Just to the north of Wallkill is a patent which which is bisected by the road to Wilmanton and labeled "John Alexander."  This is about the exact location of the property of Samuel Campbell which was sold in 1793.  That property also straddled the road.

Just above the word Wallkill is a plot of land through which a stream meanders and which is labeled with the name “Brasier.”  The 100 acre deed that Daniel Campbell witnessed in 1760 was for land that was a part of a grant to William Brauser (Brashier or Brasier).   It is in this very area that Samuel had property and perhaps also some of his sons.

The village labeled “Wilmanton” (sometimes spelled Wilemanton) no longer exists.  It was just south of the current village of Walden.

Coldenham appears as a major settlement and crossroads.  Not today.  Only the ruins of the Colden Stone Mansion remain.

Little Britain sits to the south of Coldenham.  This was the birthplace of George Clinton, first Governor of the State of New York and Presidential candidate.  Also Dewitt Clinton was born here, father of the Erie Canal.  Dr. Charles Clinton (brother of George) and subject of several other posts was also born here.

A “Campbell Mills” appears to the southwest of Little Britain.  This is part of the community started by Lachlan Campbell, a scheming Scotsman who brought indentured servants to America in an effort to restart the feudal system.  He returned to Scotland after launching the community called Campbell Hall.  Ironically, there were no Campbells that lived there.

New York is one of the eastern states that has "Towns", NOT "Townships."  You can read more about New York Legal Entities here:  As an example of how complicated it is, my zip code (10583 Scarsdale) is predominantly in the coterminous Town-Village of Scarsdale, but technically I live in the City of Yonkers.

Friday, May 9, 2014

Dr. Charles Clinton and his Patient, Mrs. Nathaniel Campbell

Dr. Clinton and his Daybook were described in a previous post.

He lived very close to many of the Hanover Campbells.  As discussed in a previous post, he treated the son of Daniel Campbell in August of 1778.  Daniel's family lived three miles up the road.

On March 31, 1781 he makes the following entry in his Daybook:
"Nathaniel Campbell's wife   variol: insit (Paid 13 June 1781)
Rx Pil: preparation No. x
ā gr.iv. pulvis cap. unam m&v quotidic"
It appears that Nathaniel's wife was inoculated by Dr. Clinton with the variola virus (small pox).  Inoculation was taking place throughout the town.  On February 12, 1781 Dr. Clinton referred to the "patients in Inoculation at the Henry McNeely's..."  On March 14, 1781 he made the same comment about the patients at Colonel McClaughry's, Genl. James Clinton's, and at Jonathan Burnett's.  The very next day he was visiting "the patients at Samuel Boyd's."

In the 1779 tax Assessment of Hanover, Nathaniel Campbell is listed right next to Samuel Campbell, his older brother.  Nathaniel does not own any land, so he is presumably a tenant on Samuel's land.

From the 1793 deed (and from other records) we know Mrs. Nathaniel Campbell's first name was Phoebe.  Her gravestone in Otisville, NY says she was born in 1737.  She was 44 years old when she received the inoculation.  It is hard to believe she had lived that many years and had not been exposed to the virus.

Her daughter, Rhoda, was nineteen.  There is no mention of her or Nathaniel being inoculated.  They presumably had already been exposed to the virus and remained in the house while Phoebe endured the multi-week inoculation protocol.

The follow-up visits made by Dr. Clinton were terse.  We can assume the procedure was a success.
"April 2, 1781  Mrs. Campbell viz. from thence sep."
"April 4, 1781 Mrs. Campbell in Inoculation vis: repd."
"April 23, 1781 Nathaniel Campbell's wife sep: Cathart. Pulv. Jallop ʒfs max"
The last entry includes a prescription for a cathartic (Accelerates defecation.  Purging was thought to be healthy.)  He prescribed a half of a drachma (1/16th ounce) of powdered Jalop.  The Jalop is a plant whose roots were often the cathartic or purgative of choice.

Two years later, Nathaniel and Phoebe's daughter would be married in the Goodwill Church.  Over those two years, Continental soldiers had made the nearby New Windsor area their last encampment.  Their presence was undoubtedly felt by the residents of nearby Hanover (now Montgomery).  By November 13 when Rhoda wed, just about all of the soldiers had been discharged and had left the area.  On November 25th, George Washington, would march with his forces into New York City.  It was the first time in seven years that the Americans had entered the city.  The nation celebrated, New Yorkers celebrated, and the Campbells celebrated.

The map below shows the close proximity of Dr. Clinton, the Goodwill Church, and the property of Samuel Campbell where Nathaniel's family lived.

1798 Map of Town of Montgomery shows relative locations of Dr. Clinton, Goodwill Church, and Samuel Campbell farm where Nathaniel Campbell was a tenant.

By 1790, James and Rhoda Ketcham had moved west into what would become the Town of Deerpark.  It is presumed from the size of their household in the 1790 and 1800 census that Rhoda's parents moved with them.

Phoebe and Nathaniel died in 1809 and 1813 respectively and were buried in Deerpark.  Due to  changes in Town boundaries the burial site in Otisville is now in the Town of Mount Hope.  Presumably Phoebe and Nathaniel lived with their only child and her family until the day they died.

Dr. Charles Clinton and his patient, Joseph Campbell

Dr. Clinton and his Daybook were described in a previous post.

He lived very close to many of the Hanover Campbells and it might be suspected that he attended to their medical needs over the 20 years in which he kept the journal.  However, it appears that Dr. Clinton catered to the wealthy.  Most of his patients were the more prosperous in the area.

Another explanation for the lack entries for yeomen and tenant farmers, is that the book could have been primarily a financial record.  In such a case he might not make entries where his likelihood of getting paid was small.

Yet a third explanation is that the sick who could not afford a doctor, did not bother to call on a doctor.

In his Index which contains family names alphabetically, there are no names of close neighbors of the Campbells.  No Perrys, no Haines, no Tices, no McDowells, and no Woods.  There is one Campbell in the index, a James Campbell.

As discouraging as that is, we are lucky that the index is not an accurate summary of the patients of Dr Clinton. He apparently grew tired of maintaining the index.  By 1778 he was making entries in a chronological fashion.  Treatment of a particular family was no longer grouped together on a single page.  His activities were recorded chronologically as he moved from house to house.

On August 6, 1778 he visited the home of Daniel Campbell and wrote the following in the daybook:
"Aug 6, 1778  Mr Daniel Campbell's Son Joseph vis. 3 miles
Rx Pulv. Sal Nitri Fij. Tart. Emet. gr. ij Camphor
gr. iv divid in Dos. No. viij cap. im. 3tia guogue Hosa
Implast. vesicat.  pro intern.
malleolis h.v. _"
Daniel Campbell was the older brother of Joel.  He is listed in the 1773 will of their father Samuel. It is believed that he is the second oldest son as he inherits the original Campbell property in Hanover that sits next to that of the Perry's and Wood's, while his older brother Samuel inherits the larger property that sits on Route 208.

This is the first record I have seen that indicates that Daniel was married and had offspring.  For example in the 1793 Deed he is listed as a single person.  He does not appear to be listed in the 1790 or 1800 census which would innumerate members of the household.

By 1779 he is no longer living at the property he acquired in the will, if he ever lived there at all.  His younger brothers, Levi and Nathan, appear to be farming that property.  Daniel's location according to the 1779 tax assessment appears to be close to the Crists, Milspaughs, Jeans(sp), and Gillespys who all operated mills.  My thinking is that he was working at the mills when the assessor came by, but that he was probably bedding with his older brother Samuel.  By the tax assessment, Daniel owned no real estate and had only £12 of personal property.  Perhaps that property consisted of tools he was using at the mills.

If this was his situation in 1778, Dr. Clinton would not have had much hope of getting paid, unless he thought Daniel's brother, Samuel would pay.

The first line in Clinton's Daybook states that he traveled 3 miles to see Joseph Campbell, the son of Daniel.  This is just about the exact distance from Dr. Clinton's home on Route 208 to the farm of Samuel Campbell Jr also on Route 208.  See below.

1798 Map of Montgomery showing location Dr. Clinton's home with respect to Samuel Campbell farm where it is suspected that Daniel Campbell was living with his son, Joseph.

The next few lines are medical shorthand that I am still trying to decipher.  This is what I have so far.

Rx - An abbreviation for a prescription of medicine which follows..
Pulv. Sal Nitri Fij. - Sal Nitri or salt petre or potassium nitrate powder. The Fij indicates a dose of 2F (2 fluid ounces?)  Was this ingested to use as a purgative?  Or used as a Salve which has cooling and detergent properties?  
Tart. Emet. gr. ij - 2 grains of Tartar Emetic; used to induce vomiting
Camphor gr. iv divid in Dos. No. viij cap. im. - 4 grains of Camphor divided into 8 doses take in the morning?  This was often used externally to releave pain and itching.
3tia guogue Hosa - I am really going out on a limb here and guessing this is "Spotted Rose Tea"...guoque rosa is Latin for "spotted rose."  Don't waste you time on this until I get an image of the actual entry as there are likely errors in my transcription.
Implast. vesicat.  pro intern. - Emplastrum Vesicatorium used for internal complaints?  Vesicant Plaster (or blistering plaster) -  plasters were made of waxes, resins, pitch, suet so they retained form but were soft enough they could be molded around body parts.  The Emplastrum Vesicatorium is the same as Emplast Cantharidis (see pocket formulary of 1856)  it was made from lard/wax/suet/resin and cantharides (powdered Spanish flies).  It is a severe irritant causing blistering.
malleolis h.v. - Malleolus refers to the bony prominence on either side of the ankle.  Not sure for what the h.v. is an abbreviation.  Maybe hemorrhagic vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels).

The relatively long list of medicines and comments by Clinton attest to the severity of Joseph's condition, whatever it was.

Dr. Clinton visited Joseph Campbell four times over the next six days.
"[Saturday] Aug 8 1778 Mr Daniel Campbell's son vis. sepr."
"[Sunday] Aug 9 1778 Mr Daniel Campbell's son Ref Puls U.A."
[the U.A is a comment on his pulse.  "Ref" is probably "Res" and may refer to his respiration.]
"[Tuesday] Aug 11 1778 Mr Daniel Campbell's son vis. sepr."
"[Wednesday] Aug 12 1778 Mr Daniel Campbell's son vis. sepr."
Dr. Clinton seldom indicated the deaths of any patients. I have only found one instance so far in my reading of the Daybook.  It was the case of "Mr Colvin's child."  Clinton records that he made it "as far as Joseph Houston's on my way; [I] heard there [the child] was dead." 

Clinton makes no mention of the eventual status of Joseph, but the frequency of his visits indicates the severity of the ailment.  The abrupt ending of the visits could lead one to conclude that the patient died.  This would also seem to explain why we see no Joseph in future censuses or hear any more of Daniel's family.

Of course, who knows what else is out there that will shine more light on the life and times of our Campbell ancestors.  Please send me any corrections or alternate theories!

Thursday, May 8, 2014

Dr. Charles Clinton of Hanover, NY

The Clinton Family of Little Britain, NY raised many notable citizens.  George Clinton was the first governor of New York and Vice President to Jefferson and Madison. His older brother, James, was a general in the Revolutionary War.  Two other older brothers, Alexander and Charles, were physicians.  A nephew, Dewitt, was also governor and father of the Erie Canal.

The legacy of the Clinton's is now a distant history unknown to most New Yorkers, let alone Americans.  The "Clintons" now refers to Bill and Hillary and not to the family that shaped New York and the Nation at their birth.

Dr. Charles Clinton was born on July 20, 1734.  He was about the same age as Joel Campbell.  Charles was one of four boys born to Irish emigrants, Charles and Elizabeth Clinton.  Their home was Little Britain, a small hamlet a few miles west of the Hudson River near current Newburgh, NY.

Charles and his brother, Alexander, received their medical training in New York City from one of the best physicians of the day, Dr. Peter Middleton.  The History of New York State (Sullivan) states that "the first attempt at the formal teaching of medicine in this country was the private course in human anatomy offered in New York by Dr. John Bard and Dr. Peter Middleton, probably before 1750."

In 1762, Charles served as a surgeon's mate in the British Army at the capture of Havana.  He celebrated his 28th birthday aboard a ship bound for the Cuban capital that was already under siege.  Arriving in the heat of early August, he witnessed the remnant of British regulars who had experienced malaria, yellow fever, and intestinal disorders since the siege began almost two months earlier.  The "fresh" provincial troops assisted in the final storming of the city.  The formal surrender occurred on August 14.  The troops that returned to New York were about half in number.   Ninety percent of those casualties had been due to disease.  If Clinton's experience was anything like that of fellow doctor, Samuel Adams, he would have been weak and underweight.  Samuel had enlisted on March 29th of that year as a 17 year-old in the Infantry Levies.  On May 19th he received his bounty and marched to join his regiment on May 23rd.  He returned to his father's house on December 7, 1762 at a sickly 88 pounds.  He still had bouts of diarrhea, but by February he was recovering and up to 100 pounds.  (see Diary of Dr. Samuel Adams)  Perhaps Charles' health had also been adversely affected by this adventure?

From 1764 to 1785, Dr. Clinton kept a record of his medical practice.  He used it both as a medical record and a financial record, but primarily the former.  The "Daybook" is in the collections of the George Washington Headquarters Museum in Newburgh, NY.   The book is in ledger-style with pages about 14" tall and 6" wide.  It contains about 400 pages.

Dr. Clinton's Daybook begins in 1764.  His patients for the next 27 years would be his neighbors in the areas of Hanover (now Montgomery), New Windsor, and Shawangunk.   The book appears to have been originally organized alphabetically by family, like a Rolodex.  The first several pages are an alphabetical index.  However, in 1778 Dr. Clinton appears to switch to a chronological approach (or perhaps a mixture of approaches?) filling vacant pages between his old alphabetical groupings.

His entries are very medical in nature, but occasionally reveal family structure or property location.  Hopefully a few digital images will appear here if I can get permission from the museum.

Charles moved to Hanover at least by 1775.  In that year he was the Chairman of Hanover Precinct, Ulster County, NY in which role he signed the returns of the local militia.

By 1779 we can say for certain that Dr. Clinton was living in his home on the current Route 208 as he appears in the 1779 tax assessment right in line with Colonel William Malcolm (Nicholson home), John Blake, and John Morrison.  He is assessed for 200 acres of land valued at £400 and with personal property valued at £271. (In comparison Daniel Campbell is 0 acres/£0/£12, Nathan and Levi are both 25/30/9, Nathaniel Campbell is 0/0/20, and Samuel is 96/144/56.)

1779 Tax Assessment for Hanover Precinct, Ulster County, New York showing "Doct Charles Clinton."

Similarly, in the 1790 census (the town changed its name from Hanover to Montgomery) he appeared in-line with Nicholson, Blake, and Morrison.  The Nicholson and Blake homes still stand as of 2014.

1790 Census for Town of Montgomery, Ulster County, New York.

This agrees with the location of his home in the 1798 map by David Galatian and rendered recently by Joe Devine.  The road that Clinton, Nicholson, and Blake lived on is the current Route 208.  It leads up to the Goodwill Church.  The road to the east to Newburgh is the current Route 17K.

Map of Town of Montgomery showing Dr. Clinton home in relation to Campbell farms and homes.

 Dr. Clinton died of consumption at the age of 56 in this home on April 3, 1791.  If this map was truly created in 1798, seven years after the death of Dr. Clinton, it is worth noting that the doctor's former residence was still known for its most well-known and respected inhabitant.
The question I have been asking for three years since I heard about this Daybook (it is a long story about it getting lost in the remodeling of the GWHQ) is "did the Doctor treat any of our Campbell relatives?"  The short answer is "Yes!!"  See next post.

Sunday, May 4, 2014

The Amazing Winter of 1779-1780; from the Diary of Dr. Samuel Adams of West Point

Many stories are told of the winter of 1779-1780.  It was exceedingly cold with snow storm after snow storm.

Despite the many writings of the hardships at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777-1778, this winter was much worse.  It also appears that the army was no better hutted or clothed in 1779 vs 1777.

Dr. Samuel Adams, a surgeon for the 3rd Regiment of Artillery, was based at West Point this winter.  This was the third winter for units of the army at West Point. The first troops stationed there had built the first barracks very late in the winter of 1777-1778.  By 1779 there were plenty of fortifications, but from the diary of Dr Adams, not adequate for the winter of 1779.

Here is the winter in his words.  I have omitted items not dealing with the weather.

Oct 10, 1779 "set off for West Point" [He had been on furlough in Boston area.]
Oct 18, 1779 [On his journey he dined at Fishkill and by the evening he was at West Point.] "artillery exceeding healthy."  [This is a common entry]

Nov 12, 1779 "snowed a little."
Nov 17, 1779 "snowed last night and this morning"  "the ground was covered more than an inch"
Nov 26, 1779 "a severe snow storm p.m.  snow fell over 11 inches deep"

Dec 2, 1779 "snowed a.m.  fell 4 or 5 inches"
Dec 5, 1779 "a cold snow storm p.m. fell 2 inches or more deep"
Dec 15, 1779 "fair exceedingly cold!"
Dec 16, 1779 "snowed a little morning"
Dec 18, 1779 "a most violent cold snow storm  18 inches fell.  continued our works on our room."
Dec 19, 1779 "some snow fell.  very cold"
[it continued very cold until the 28th, but no mention of snow.]
Dec 28, 1779 "a severe snow storm, fell a great quantity"
Dec 29, 1779 "pleasant"
Dec 30, 1779 "some snow"

Jan 1, 1780 "fair exceeding cold"
Jan 2, 1780 "a very severe snow storm p.m. and night"
Jan 3, 1780 "storm continued very severe indeed. Very disagreeable time for the garrison.  Many of the troops yet in tents and very badly of it for wood - we had none in our room, obliged to keep our beds part of the day for want of fire and the rest take shelter among some of our more fortunate neighbors who had wood."
Jan 4, 1780 "continued very windy and extreme cold. - many of those men in tents were quite buried in snow and not dug out till this day - some tents blowed quite away on Sunday night [Jan 2], the inhabitants of which lay buried in snow till morning - come hither ye money catchers at home and view the scene see the hardship and publick virtue of an American Soldier - and then can you grudge to make them a compensation for their services?  If you can you may justly be called sordid Devils and not men ---we were still without wood in our room 'till evening"
Jan 5, 1780 "fair but extreme cold - The River mostly shut up, men crossed on the Ice both yesterday and this day - wrote to Mrs. A -- No. 10 --got wood - Oh! the pleasures of a good fire ---
Jan 6, 1780 "Cloudy some snow fell and extremely cold indeed!!! [the three exclamation marks are his] --sent two of Capt Donnelly men to Hospital with the venereal disease -- attended Lodge at even" [Masonic Lodge]
Jan 7, 1780 "Cloudy some squalls of snow, remarkably cold!!!thought to be as severe weather as any that has been felt these many years ---dressed frost bitten foot of one of Capt Moodie's men [In Col Lamb's artillery] --exceeding bad - take the first inst - being drunk.  [not sure if I transcribed that correctly.  It appears the soldier did not realize the damage being done to his feet as he was enjoying the rum ration too much.]
Jan 17, 1780  "severe snow squall"
Jan 24, 1780  [On this day he walked across the ice to Fishkill and lodged at Capt Weeks]
Jan 27, 1780  [He walked across the frozen river from Fishkill Landing to Murderer's Creek.  He had lodged here in previous years and had fond friends, especially at Horton's Tavern.  He rode on a sleigh from Murderer's Creek to West Point on the frozen river.]
Jan 30, 1780 [Snow that fell on the 2nd and 3rd of January is still on the southern sides of the roofs of buildings at West Point.  January was that cold.]

Feb 8, 1780 [On this day, Dr Adams celebrated his 35th birthday.]  "a sever snow storm.  snow fell a foot or more."

Image of Diary of Dr. Samuel Adams from the 3rd day of one of the worst snow storms in NY history.  January 4, 1780
The Campbells were living 10 miles to the north of West Point.  We have no record of what they experienced.  Did they have livestock or poultry that did not survive the storm?  Did they have adequate wood?  Did they take advantage of the frozen river to transport their harvest?

Reference:  Adams, Samuel Dr., Diary of Doctor Samuel Adams, Unpublished Papers of Dr. Samuel Adams on microfilm in the Manuscript Room at the NY Public Library, ZL-307, 3 Reels.

A Second Visit to Continental Village - The Mill Site

I promised in my first post on Continental Village that I would update it when I found an expert.  A week ago, I was lucky enough to have a personal tour of the area by local expert Ginny Gilbert.

Ginny lived in Continental Village for many years and was instrumental in preserving the mill sites.  She is the creator of the map I referred to in my first post (see page 9):

When she resided in the Village, she would dig in the mill area to map the foundations and other site features.  When neighbors complained that she was trespassing, she bought the land.  The out-of-town owner had intentions to build a home there, but found too many obstacles to construct so close to the brook.  After some negotiations she and the owner arrived at an agreeable price.

Ginny has since donated the land to the Town to be preserved.

The mill ruins are best explored from Winston Lane.  We parked on the East side of the road on a narrow shoulder right in front of the Paper Mill Historic Marker.  See google map:

From there you can look down the steep hill onto the ruins of the paper mill.  Access to the ruins is less steep if you walk up the road to a point where there is a gradual slope from Winston Lane to the brook.  To your left you will see part of the remains of the dam.  See below

Ruins of dam on Sprout Brook at Continental Village
Right next to the dam there appears to be a well for a water wheel that is parallel to the dam.

Possible site of Robinson Grist Mill, 1777.
The well is partially filled with leaves, tree limbs, and other debri.  It sits between the dam on the left and the rock wall on the right.  The picture is taken from where the mill race would have been.  Water flowed from the mill race over the water wheel to the brook.

Ginny believes this was the original site of the grist mill.  The mill belonged to Beverley Robinson prior to the revolution.  By 1777, Robinson had sworn his allegiance to King George and had raised a loyalist regiment called the Loyal Americans of which he was Colonel.  He was likely part of the force that destroyed Continental Village on October 9, 1777.  Interestingly, the Grist Mill was spared.

Stone steps lead up from the wheel well next to the dam.

Downstream from the dam many outlines of buildings are visible.  The records say that in addition to the grist mill there was a saw mill and a fulling mill at this location..

Outline of stone walls downstream from the dam.

Downstream from this first site there appears to be sites for additional water wheels.  See below.

Outline of another tail race parallel to dam?   Possible site of fulling mill or saw mill?
On the side of the hill that leads back to the road, the main mill race is visible.  Because the paper mill was in operation well into the 19th century, the mill race is probably not the one that existed in 1777. 

The red line shows the location of the millrace.  The water flowed from the dam (off to the right) down to the paper mill (ruins in the distance).
The mill race was covered with stones to either prevent freezing of the water in the winter or more likely to serve as a road for transport of materials to and from the mill.  At the point shown below, part of the mill race has become exposed.

The water in the mill race flowed from right to left.  One of the covering rocks is in the middle of the picture.
A view down the mill race.  The beverages and football were probably was not ones used by the soldiers in 1777 ;-)
At the end of the mill race sits the ruins of the Phoenix Paper Mill.  It was built on the site of the original Keating paper mill that was destroyed in 1777.  Ginny says that she found thousands of buttons around the foundation of a building that was just to the right of the paper mill.  The buttons were concentrated at regular intervals on the outside of the building foundation.  Her theory is that the rags used in paper making still had some buttons attached.  The workers would remove the buttons and toss them out the windows of this building, leaving piles at regular intervals corresponding with the windows.

Ruins of Paper Mill.  This is the rebuilt Phoenix mill that was in operation until 1873.  The mill race enters the picture at the upper right.
Outside the base of the paper mill is a small square foundation that contains charred brick.  Ginny thought this might have been a small forge that did iron work for the mills.

Area where rust and charred remains were found.  Possible forge?  Sadly I have no picture of Ginny, but her feet made it into this picture.   At the top of the picture there is a plastic wall from Ginny's shed where she stored excavating tools.  To the right of that is an iron lintel.  Ginny guessed it was from a window in the paper mill or adjacent storehouse.
The tail race of the paper mill does not continue parallel to the dam.  It takes a right turn and flows under large stones downstream.  The picture below shows where it exited close to the brook.

Exit of Tail Race from Paper Mill.