Friday, September 26, 2014

1685 - Anna MacKenzie - Countess of Argyll

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

May 15, 1685

Anna MacKenzie was the Countess of Argyll in 1685. Her marriage in 1670 to the 9th Earl of Argyll was the second for both of them. She was about 49 at the time.

She was an accomplished woman who had grown stronger through many tribulations.  Her parents died when she was quite young and she was moved from her home in the Highlands to be raised by relatives in Fife.  Her first marriage was to the Earl of Balcarres who was exiled in France, Belgium, and Holland when Cromwell came to power.  She elected to join her husband, leaving her daughter and two sons in Scotland for seven years.  Her husband died in exile, never to see his homeland or children again.  Shortly after returning to Scotland her oldest son died and her oldest daughter ran off to a nunnery in France.  Widowed and with her estate in near ruin, she used her organizational talents, family connections, and cunning to leave an orderly inheritance to her son at his marriage.  Her long letter to him at this time shows her wisdom, faith, and practicality

Anna MacKenzie portrait from Lindsay's Memoir..Now thought to NOT be Anna.
The marriage to Argyll appeared to be one of deep affection, not of convenience as many of the Campbell marriages tended to be.  They acquired a new residence near Sterling Castle which Anna appears to have played a large role in furnishing.  Their step children, Sophia (of Anna) and Jean and Archibald (of Argyll) also had suites there.

The 9th Earl of Argyll and the Countess of Argyll
It was there at Sterling in the so-named "Argyll's Lodging" where Anna was arrested on May 15, 1685 and led to Edinburgh Castle, where she was imprisoned until after her husband's execution.

Signage at Argyll's Lodging - "Scotland's finest 17th century townhouse"
Argyll's Lodging
Hall in Argyll's Lodging
Doorway in Lodging - "A" for Argyll or Alexander?  It was a medical "Ward" for the military after falling out of Campbell hands.
Main Source:  Alexander Lord Lindsay, A Memoir of Lady Anna MacKenzie

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

1685 - George Scot of Pitlochie

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

 August 18, 1685

On this date the Privy Council named Robert Campbell, previously banished, to be transported to his Majesties Plantations in New Jersey by Mr. George Scot.  Robert was the grandfather of Joel Campbell (the namesake of this blog.)

On pages 141 and 142 of the The 1685 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland a "supplication" by Mr. George Scot of Pitlochie was considered.  Mr Scot was "in a few weeks to remove himself and family to America."  He requested that he be appointed keeper of the records of New England.  The Privy Council agreed to bring the request to the King.

Mr Scot's plan to relocate to America was well known.  In the introduction to the Privy Council Register the editor states that Scot was “being about to sail for East New Jersey with a cargo of criminals, wastrels, and malcontents...”

Scot was not the only one with this idea. Page 100 of the Register describes a William Arbuckle who "hath a ship now lying in the road of Leith bounding for his Majesties plantations in New England."  He appeared before the Privy Council to request "to have some of these prisoners who wer lately taken as being engadged with the late Earle of Argyle..."  The council granted him fifteen prisoners "under the Laigh Parliament Hall."

Robert Barclay of Urie also had a ship at Leith bound for East New Jersey.  He had already hand-picked 24 prisoners that he volunteered to transport to the plantations.  Page 125 of the Register records the Privy Council's approval.

Scot however made out the best.  Perhaps he had the largest ship.  Scot had also personally selected some prisoners whose trades were "absolutely necessar for his said designe."  He went so far as to give them money so they would not "enquire elsewhere."  In the meantime the Council had decided that 177 of the prisoners were to be sent to Jamaica under a Mr. John Ewing of London, twelve of whom Scot had contracted with.  Page 131 of the Register records that Scot could keep those twelve men (listed by name).  Another twelve yet to be sentenced would be added to the list of Mr Ewing.  Mr. Scots prisoners included 50 from Edinburgh and 50 from Dunnottar.  Page 141 lists another 24 prisoners (by name) at the Tolbooth of Leith that were to be delivered Mr. Scot.

Page 145 of the Register appears to add additional prisoners to the 124 already assigned to Mr. Scot.  "The Lords of the Committie of his Majesties Privy Councill for publict affairs doe hereby grant ordor and warrant to the magistrats of Edinburgh and Canongate and keepers of their prisons respective to deliver to Mr. George Scot of Pitlochie in the persons William Jackson, William Cunyngham and John Murehead, prisoners in the tolbooth of Edinburgh; Thomas Jackson and Michael Marshall in the Theives-holl of Edinburgh; Robert and David Campbles, prisoners in the tolbooth of Canongate, all formerly banished by the Councill or Justices, to be by him transported to his Majesties plantations abroad off New Jersie, upon the said Mr. George Scott of Pitlochie his finding caution to transport them thither in maner and under the penalty contained in the act of Councill granted in his favours for transporting of the other prisoners now given to him by the Councill, dated at Leith the eighteenth day of August instant."

George Scott, a staunch Presbyterian, was not himself that far from banishment.  He appears not to have involved himself in the rebellion, rather his solution was to emigrate.  A year prior he had purchased land in East New Jersey and had been making preparations to embark.  The plethora of prisoners was probably a blessing to him as now he had a large source of indentured help that could turn his land into an economic success.  (Many Scottish gentry tried exporting the feudal system to America).  He commissioned a ship, The Henry and Francis, that is the subject of another post.  The ship set sail from Leith on September 5, 1685.

1685 - The Maiden

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

 June 30, 1685 Tuesday

While the 9th Earl of Argyll waited in confinement in Edinburgh Castle, the Privy Council inquired of King James II (VII of Scotland) as to his opinion on this prisoner.  The King's response was received on June 28th in which he ordered that they "take all ways to know from him ... his assisters with men, arms, or money, his associates and correspondents, his designs, etc."  Under no circumstance should the inquiry postpone his execution which was to be within three days.  The King did not specify the manner of execution.

Despite the King's instructions Argyll was not tortured and did not divulge his co-conspirators, but did confess his role in the rebellion.

He was sentenced on Monday the 29th.
"The lords therefore decern and adjudge the said Archibald Campbell late earl of Argyle, to be taken to the market-cross of Edinburgh, the 30th day of this instant June, 1685, and there, betwixt two and five in the afternoon, to be beheaded, and ordain his  head thereafter to be affixed on the tolbooth of Edinburgh, on a high pin of iron : which  was pronounced for doom." [Wodrow]
The apparatus that enabled the beheading was called "The Maiden ."  Its name is said to have arisen from its rare usage. However, it was used more than 150 times over its operational life.  Argyll's father had been one of its happy clients.

The Maiden

The Maiden
Today it is displayed in the National Museum of Scotland.

As Argyll approached the Maiden at his time of execution he is purported to have said that "it was the sweetest maiden ever he kissed, it being a means to finish his sin and misery, and his inlet to glory, for which he longed."  [Willcock]

The Maiden appears to be situated behind St. Giles near the Mercat Cross on a raised platform.

1685 - Edinburgh Castle

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

June 30, 1685  Tuesday morning

The Argyll's were no strangers to Edinburgh Castle, both as honored guests and as prisoners.  The 8th Earl of Argyll had been imprisoned here prior to his execution in 1661.  Since May 15th of 1685, Argyll's wife, Anna MacKenzie, had been imprisoned here.  She was arrested at Sterling as soon as word was obtained that her husband was sailing from Holland to Scotland with an invasion force. The 9th Earl had been imprisoned here since his capture on June 20.

The tower above the Portcullis Gate in Edinburgh Castle is known as the Argyle Tower. This tower did not exist in 1685, but the location of the Earl's imprisonment was apparently close by or superseded by this newer construction.

Portcullis Gate and Argyle Tower in Edinburgh Castle
Argyll wrote many letters and verse while imprisoned for these ten days.  The most touching are the ones to his wife and step-daughter (who would marry his son, Charles).  Below is one of his last letters.  It was written to his son, John, on the day of his execution.

Letter written by Argyll on his day of execution
Edn Castle 30 June 85
Deare Jhon
We parted sudenly but I hope shall meete hapily in heaven    I pray god bless you & if you seeke him he will be found of you     my wiffe will say all to you     pray love & respect her.   I am
Yr Loving Father

Archibald Campbell, the 9th Earl of Argyll, had a practice of taking a nap after dinner.  On the day of his execution he was served the last meal of his life before noon.  He ate with "cheerfulness and composure" then retired to an inner room and napped "as sweetly and pleasantly as ever he had done."

The Last Sleep of Argyll, E.M. Ward
The skullcap worn by the Earl in this painting appears quite different from the one that his father supposedly wore 24 years earlier on his "last sleep" in the castle.  That skullcap is on display in the entry hall of Inveraray Castle. 

"Nightcap worn by the Marquess of Argyll (8th Earl) during "the last sleep of Argyll" before his execution 1661."  (Sorry about the glare)

1685 - The Netherbow Port

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

June 20, 1685

Two days after his capture, Archibald Campbell, the 9th Earl of Argyll and the leader of the rebellion in Scotland, was escorted into Edinburgh.  It was late in the evening, but it is likely his approach had been announced and many were on hand to witness the champion of Presbyterianism in Scotland.

The procession stopped at the Watergate which was located at the foot of Canongate near Holyrood Palace. Argyll was given the option of walking or riding in a cart up what is now called "The royal mile" to the Edinburgh Tolbooth.  Although he was weak he chose walking as "he had no liking for that kind of coach or coachman - meaning the hangman."

The procession was led by a portion of the mounted guards.  Next came the hangman who was tethered to the prisoner.  Argyll walked with no hat, hands tied behind him, and a rope about his waist that was attached to the hangman.  After a gap he was followed by more mounted guards.

The procession passed the Canongate Tolbooth where my relative, Robert Campbell, would be imprisoned in a few days.

About half way up the hill they passed through the main entrance to Edinburgh called the Netherbow Port.  Many a Covenanter's head had hung on this gate as a message to the populus.  Only four years ago, he himself had entered this gate carrying the royal crown at the opening of the Scottish Parliament.

This gate had been the processional route into Edinburgh for as long as anyone could remember.  It had become part of the massive Flodden Wall that was erected in the years following the Battle of Flodden in 1513.  The gate was rebuilt in the fashion seen below in 1571. Prior versions of the gate however existed at least as early as 1369.

Drawing of Netherbow gate.  More drawings at this link: Netherbow Port
The Netherbow Port was demolished in 1764.  All that remains are the clock, a stone tablet, and the port bell.

The tablet from James VI was salvaged from the gate and is now in the wall just east of the John Knox House.

Tablet from Netherbow Port
The Netherbow bell which was rung to announce executions and other public events was also salvaged and hangs in a belfry above the salvaged tablet.  (see below)

The tablet and bell are now near the John Knox House.  It can be seen on the right of this picture.
The clock was transferred to the Orphan Hospital in Calton Hollow.  When that was also demolished the clock found its current home atop the Former Dean Orphanage. (55.95168 -3.22424)

Netherbow clock on Former Dean Orphanage or Modern Art Two

The passage through the Netherbow Port was quite narrow.  This can be seen by the outline in brass markers that are at the corner of High Street and St. Mary's Street.  This photo is taken with High Street to the right and Canongate to the left.  The second photo connects the brass markers with red to make the outline easier to see.

Outline of Netherbow Port in brass markers.
Enhanced outline of Netherbow Port
Brass marker in High Street with date of "1571", the year the port was rebuilt.
The area near the gate became known as the "World's End."  Many poorer residents never left the city because a toll was required when passing through the gate, therefore their world only extended to the gate.

In 2014 I enjoyed a dinner at the World's End Bar with Mike & Mary Anne Campbell and Gayle & Jeanie Campbell.  We had met only days earlier on the Campbell Tour of Scotland.  We squeezed into a corner and enjoyed talking about where we had been that day.

The next day I had lunch across the street at 1 High Street.  This location was also considered "the world's end."  A talkative local at the bar told me of his adventures and insisted I take a sip of his whiskey.  The World's End did not seem such a bad place today.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

1685 - The Argyll Stone

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

June 18, 1685

The Earl's rebellion had fallen apart.  Most of his clansmen had deserted his army and were wandering back to what if anything was left of their farms and families in the Highlands. The Earl himself had split up with his officers to draw less attention.  In addition he disguised himself as a commoner, his bearded head topped with a blue bonnet.  His only companion now was Major Fullerton as they headed southwest towards Ayrshire and the home of many sympathetic to Presbyterianism.

The 9th Earl of Argyll was captured at the point now called "The Argyll Stone" as he was escaping to the west.
The Earl and the Major were on horseback about to ford the river at Inchinnan .  They were met by a party of armed men who the Major engaged in conversation as the Earl continued up the water.  Another two armed men (also on horseback) stopped the Earl and demanded that he surrender his horse.  He refused.  A struggle ensued and the Earl was soon on the ground in hand to hand combat.  He drew his pistols and the two rode off. Unwisely he left his horse and continued his escape by fording the river on foot.

Meanwhile the Major had been disarmed.  His captors were suspicious of the Major's "guide" and sent after him.  When they reached Argyll he was still in the water and they fired upon him.  Willcock states:
"The noise drew the attention of those in a cottage hard by and three men, one of them a weaver named John Riddell who lived there, came out and joined the soldiers. On Argyll's coming out of the water an altercation took place. The weaver, who was drunk, and who had brought a  broadsword out of the cottage with him, persisted in holding Argyll as his prisoner. The Earl offered him money which he refused, and then he drew his pistol and endeavoured to fire it at his antagonist, but the water had wet the powder and it would not ignite. On this the weaver struck him a violent blow upon the head with his broadsword and he fell into the water. As he fell he uttered some out-cry which revealed to his captors the fact that the unfortunate Argyll was in their hands."
This occurred at the confluence of the streams of the Black and White Carts.  (Zoomable map)  It is just a short walk from the end of the Glasgow Airport runway.

Signage at Black Cart Water

White Cart Water from Lift Bridge
This location is marked by two ancient stones associated with St. Conval, who introduced Christianity to this area in the 9th century.  One of the stones was supposed the former base of a large celtic cross.  From his date onward (June 18, 1685) it would be known as The Argyll Stone.

Road marker on Inchinnan Road
Wrought iron fence enclosing the stones
Signage at the stones

Moss covered Argyll Stone and St. Conval's Chariot
Major source:  Willcock, A Scots Earl in Covenanting Times

Saturday, September 20, 2014

1685 - The Harbor of Leith

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

September 5, 1685

Old Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, sat on a volcanic plug.  The steep sides of that plug provided a natural barrier to attackers.  It also presented a natural barrier to the expansion of the city.  As the population grew, the city expanded upwards (higher buildings) and downwards (tunnels), not outwards.

The independent city of Canongate (now considered a part of Edinburgh) sprung up just outside the gates of Edinburgh.  The ocean harbor located just 2 miles away, also considered a separate but subservient city, was called Leith.  Today this area is just one uninterrupted metropolis.

Leith is located at the mouth of the Leith river (Water of Leith) where it empties in to the Firth of Forth, a large inlet from the North Sea.

Old Leith Harbor is the green marker (C) on the Leith River.  Marker D is the location of the Netherbow Gate.  E is the Canongate Tolbooth.  They lie on what is now called the Royal Mile between Edinburgh Castle and Palace of Holyrood.  See zoomable map here.

By 1685 Leith was a mature center of commerce, established in the 12th century.  A painting of the harbor was made in 1798.  Two hundred years later the views are significantly different, but were they that different one hundred years earlier in 1685?

Leith Harbor in 1798

The ship that is docked at the pier is a three masted ocean-going vessel.  It appears not too different from the barques that were used in the late 17th century shown below.

Late 17th century barque.

This 17th century ship is highlighted on the monument in Leith Harbor seen below.

Monument at Leith Harbor

Close-up of Monument at Leith Harbor.

In 1685 construction was progressing on a windmill whose foundation still stands today on the east side of the harbor.  The windmill was later converted to a signal tower for incoming ships.

Signal Tower at Leith Harbor (former windmill)

Harbor Monument with Signal Tower in background
Signal Tower
On September 5, 1685, the ship Henry and Francis left this port for the American colonies.  It was likely a ship much like the barques shown above.  Aboard was Robert Campbell, the grandfather of the subject of this blog.   Perhaps he gazed at the shrinking arms of the windmill in the harbor as the ship sailed out into the Firth of Forth.   Future blogs will contain more about Robert and the ship.

Looking across the old harbor at Leith.

Friday, September 19, 2014

1685 - The Cochranes and Bonnie Dundee

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

June 18, 1685

Family ties, political loyalties, and religious convictions in 1685 can be confusing.  I get confused just by the many names and titles assigned to a single person.  For example the leader of the 1685 Argyll Rebellion was the 9th Earl of Argyll, also known as Archibald Campbell.  The leader of the king's army in Argyll was John Murray, or the Marquis of Atholl who lived in Blair Castle.  And it goes on.

The wealth and power that came with alignment with the King trumped any religious conflicts for many in the ruling class.  For others, their Covenant to only recognize Christ as the head of the church was more important than allegiance to a King who sought the ecclesiastical crown as well as the secular crown.  When it came to choosing sides in battle, a clansman had no choice but to fight for his clan chief irregardless of religious or political leanings.

When political, religious, and family forces collided, strange alliances sometimes occurred.  One in particular was the marriage of Jean Cochrane to John Graham of Claverhouse.

John Graham, also known as Bonnie Dundee and Bluidy Clavers, but most commonly just as "Claverhouse," was one of the more colorful and controversial actors of the day.   In 1685 he was only 37 years old.  He was a respected Officer in the Royal Army (in another year he would be promoted to Major General), a member of the Scottish Privy Council, Sheriff of Wigtown, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and Annandale, Constable of Dundee, and the proprietor of extensive lands.

John Graham of Claverhouse
For the past seven years his military mission had been to suppress the illegal religious gatherings of Presbyterians.  These were known as the Covenanters.  They were unwilling to take an oath to the King that recognized him as the Head of the Church.  Claverhouse disrupted the secret "Conventicles" of the Covenanters and they demonized him in word and print (see this example).

Just a year previous, on June 10, 1684, Claverhouse married "the Honourable Jean Cochrane."  This marriage fell into the category of "political" as this alignment of two powerful families would increase Claverhouse's wealth and power.  The Cochranes, however, were well known Covenanters.  In fact, Jean Cochrane's uncle, Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree, was exiled in the Netherlands with Argyll.

Jean Cochrane - Lady Claverhouse
Jean's mother may have been averse to the wedding as she did not sign the matrimonial contract. Claverhouse looked on the apparent contradiction as follows:  (I changed spellings for ease in reading.  The reader is directed to John Graham of Claverhouse by Charles Sanford Terry, M.A. for the direct transcription.  It can be found at
I look on myself as a cleanser. I may cure people guilty of that plague of presbytry by conversing with them, but cannot be infected, and I see very little of that amongst those persons but may be easily rubbed off.  And for the young lady herself, I shall answer for her. Had she been right principled [Had she been as Whiggish as her family] she would never, inspite of her mother and relations, made choice of a persecutor, as they call me.
Perhaps there was a fourth factor at work here--falling in love.


On June 18, 1685, Claverhouse found himself far from the action of the Argyll Rebellion.  He commanded a royal regiment of horse near Selkirk and the "Borders" to prevent communication between Monmouth's and Argyll's armies.

Sir John Cochrane, the uncle of Lady Claverhouse, was in command of the last surviving unit of rebels.  [Argyll, the leader of the rebellion, had been captured earlier in the day.]  After a brief skirmish in Renfrewshire (land that Cochrane knew well) his forces dispersed. 
"Ten days after the skirmish at Muirdyke [in Renfrewshire] Cochran was betrayed to the authorities, but his life, though doubly forfeited on account of his share in the Rye-House Plot and in this rebellion, was spared in consequence of a ransom of £5,000 Sterling being paid by his father, Lord Dundonald, to some of the priests about the Court. In order to afford a pretext for remitting the death penalty he was taken to London, where he had an interview with James II, in which it was alleged that he had revealed secrets of importance." (A Scots Earl in Covenanting Times..., John Willcock (google book)

Claverhouse was wounded at the battle of Killiecrankie in 1689 and died soon after near Blair Castle.  He is buried in the ruins of St Bride's Kirk at Blair Castle, the estate of John Murray, Marquis of Atholl.
St. Bride's Kirk - Claverhouse tomb in portal on right side
Lady Claverhouse remarried.  She died in 1695 in the Netherlands when the Inn she was staying at collapsed.

Thursday, September 18, 2014

1685 - The Fall of Carnassarie Castle

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

June 23, 1685

"Carnasserie Castle (also spelled Carnassarie) is a ruined 16th-century tower house, noted for its unusual plan and renaissance detailing. It is located around 2km to the north of Kilmartin, in Argyll and Bute, western Scotland, at grid reference NM837009."  [Wikipedia]

This castle was built in 1565 for the reformer, John Carswell, under the patronage of the 5th Earl of Argyll.  Within this structure Carswell translated the "Book of Common Order" (a reformed text) into Gaelic, the first book printed in Scottish Gaelic.  The castle passed through more Campbell hands and was in the possession of Sir Dugald Campbell, 3rd Baronet of Auchinbreck, in 1685.

The last hold outs from the Monmouth (Argyll) rebellion were stubbornly garrisoned in Carnassarie Castle on June 23, 1685.  They were commanded by two Campbells, Auchinbreck and Barbreck.  A large loyal army under Atholl approached.  The army already held hostage the former Captain of the garrison and his family.  They also had intelligence that the defenders were only eighty in number.

Atholl sent out Mackenzie of Suddie to demand a surrender of the castle.  Suddie took the hostages along as leverage.  If the castle did not surrender, the Captain of the garrison would be executed.  The insolent rebels fired on the party and one of the hostages was summarily hanged.

The hanging had the desired effect and the castle surrendered.  As they vacated the castle the magazine exploded.  Even though it only took out two windows and a door, the loyalist were roused by this treachery.  They fell on the captives killing several including Auchinbreck's brother, Alexander Campbell.

The damaged castle was never repaired.  It fell prey to the elements and eventually left Campbell hands.  Today it is remembered primarily for its first resident and his work in converting the "wild" Highlanders to Protestantism by using texts in their native Gaelic.  But it also is a reminder of its last occupants--the last hold outs of the Argyll Rebellion of 1685.

Signage near castle
Walkway to castle
Signage at castle

South side
Campbell Gyronny
Fireplace in main chamber
View from roof of castle

Main source:  History of Clan Campbell, Vol III, Alastair Campbell, p.53.

1685 - Glendaruel - The Valley of the River Ruel

[This is part of  a series of articles on the year 1685.  You might want to read the Overview first.]

June 1, 1685

In the Highlands of Scotland a quiet river runs through a green valley.  Like many Highland glens, it is much quieter than it was 300 years ago.  Small villages lie abandoned.  Large estates have vanished except for their gates and burial plots.  Cattle and sheep roam the soggy soil near the river flats.  Deer hide in the tall grass on the valley walls.  The sound of a tractor or car on the valley road is rare.  This is Glendaruel, the valley of the river Ruel.

Glendaruel lies on the Cowal Peninsula in Argyll.  The Ruel river flows south through the valley and exits into Loch Riddon, a sea loch.  This sea inlet is where Eilean Dearg is located, the 9th Earl's headquarters in 1685.

Glendaruel in Cowal.  The Ruel river empties into Loch Riddon.
In May of 1685 the area of Cowal was in chaos.  Word had spread that the 9th Earl had returned to Scotland from exile in the Netherlands.  He was raising an army from protestant Scots to depose the catholic King.  His recruiting was heaviest in the Highlands where his clan resided.  

Cowal was "Campbell Country."  Loyal forces were deployed to Cowal to intimidate the residents of Cowal.  The King's men under the command of John Murray, the 1st Marquess of Atholl, drove off their cattle, confiscated their possessions, and set fire to their homes.  Those that had warning buried their valuables and fled into the hills.

The 9th Earl's son, Charles, entered Cowal to recruit in the end of May 1685.  On June 1st he and about one hundred of his "men" were "...surprised in their quarters by the Athollmen.  Atholl had heard of their arrival in Cowal to recruit and had sent a party under Captain Mackenzie of Suddie who had caught them napping.  Mr. Charles and his men had retreated to their boats, followed by the Athollmen who wounded four of the party and took several prisoners.” [A History of Clan Campbell,  Alastair Campbell p. 45]

My ancestor, Robert Campbell, was likely "recruited" during this period.  He may have been in the party that quickly retreated to the safety of their boats in Loch Riddon.